Factor Structure of the Smoking Temptation Scale: Cross-Validation in Iranian men

Document Type : Original Article


1 Environmental Health Research Center, School of Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

2 Institute of Medical Advanced Technologies, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

3 Health Management and Social Development Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

4 Department of Medical Sciences, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

5 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Biostatistics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM) is used as a framework to implement smoking cessation programs. This model has some subscales based on which the smoking temptation scale is proposed as stages movement factor. This study aimed to translate and validate the temptation subscales of the TTM questionnaire in the Iranian population.
Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 387 smokers. The participants were selected using convenience sampling method. First, the smoking temptation scale designed by Velicer et al. was translated into Persian, and then, factorial validity of the hierarchical three-factor structure for this subscale was studied using factor analysis and measurement invariance (MI) methods. All analyses were performed using Mplus software.
Findings: It was observed that the hierarchical three-factor structure model had a good fit to the data [confirmatory fit index (CFI) = 0.944, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.915, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.067, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.042]. This study showed that this factorial structure had an identical measurement and structural model in subgroups of the population such as rural and urban residence, highly educated and low educated, high income and low income, three stages of quitting, and across the three ethnicities.

Conclusion: Given the validity and reliability of the hierarchical three-factor structure for smokingtemptation scale, this measure can be used in interventional programs for smoking cessation in the Iranian male population.


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