Does Tobacco Use Enhance the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Evidence from Eastern Indian Population

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Bariatu, Ranchi – 834009, India

2 Department of Oral Health Sciences Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh - 160012, India

3 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Bariatu, Ranchi – 834009, India

4 Department of Pharmacology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Bariatu, Ranchi – 834009, India

10.34172/ahj.2023.1400

Abstract

Background: Tobacco consumption causes altered immune and inflammatory responses which lead to various respiratory 
diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. 
Studies have only confirmed the harmful effects of tobacco consumption on the severity of COVID-19. The present study aimed 
to explore the association between tobacco consumption and the initiation of COVID-19.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the relationship between tobacco consumption and 
COVID-19. A brief closed-ended, self-structured questionnaire was prepared to record participants’ responses. The Participants 
included the individuals who visited Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, India for the COVID-19 diagnostic 
test. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 24). The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis 
were also used to predict the odds of getting infected with COVID-19. 
Findings: A total of 521 valid responses were obtained and subjected to analysis. Moreover, 256 participants (49.13%) were 
COVID-19 positive and 57 participants (10.94%) were tobacco users. The odds ratio of tobacco consumption was higher in 
COVID-19-positive patients compared to COVID-19-negatives (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.01, 3.13). The current tobacco users had 
a higher risk of developing COVID-19 as compared to the former users (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.39, 16.61). The frequency and 
duration of tobacco use also affected the COVID-19 infectivity rate but these were statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: The COVID-19 positivity rate was significantly higher in tobacco users, especially in current tobacco users as 
compared to former users. Nevertheless, gender and occupation had no significant effect on COVID-19 incidence in this study.

Keywords


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