Role of Herbal Medication in Tobacco Cessation Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Document Type : Review Article(s)


1 Department of Dentistry, Phulo Jhano Government Medical College and Hospital, Dumka, Jharkhand, India

2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

3 Department of CTVS, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

4 Department of General Medicine, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India



Background: Literature reports randomized trials have examined herbal drugs and other smoking cessation therapies such as 
aromatherapy acupuncture but no comprehensive overview of the overall results has been provided. The present systematic review 
and meta-analysis aimed to describe the overall effectiveness and safety of herbal medicines.

Methods: This study was conducted from December 2020 to April 2021 by searching seven databases. Herbal drugs have been 
shown to help people quit smoking in randomized controlled studies. Two teams of researchers independently extracted the data.

Findings: A total of 12 trials with 762 smokers were included in this study. The heterogeneity I2 was 43.6% with P=0.03 (Cochrane 
Q test) and χ2=15.77. The overall odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.91 (0.68- 1.20) which shows a protective 
factor of herbal preparations and very low heterogeneity. The herbal treatments such as Vernonia cinerea, St. John’s Wort, and 
lavender essential oil were significantly related to a higher continuous abstinence rate (CAR) compared to the controls with risk ratio 
(RR): 2.13 (0.57-4.61) at week 8; RR: 2.72 (0.77-5.3) at week 12; and RR: 2.77 (0.37-1.13) at week 24. A 7-day point abstinence 
rate (PAR) at week 8 was RR: 1.24 (0.81-6.34) with 95% CI; RR: 2.09 (0.93-8.29) at week 12, and RR: 2.11 (0.3-3.08) at week 24.
Black pepper and lime were better in craving reduction than the placebo group. This study found no significant difference between 
the treatment and control groups in adverse effects, despite some minor side effects with herbal drugs. 

Conclusion: The results of this study showed herbal treatments have the potential to help smokers quit the habit. Further welldesigned trials comparing standardized herbal medicines with conventional therapy and placebo are recommended to reinforce 
this data. 


Ruchi Mitra: (Google Scholar) (PubMed)

Arpita Rai: (Google Scholar) (PubMed)

Ansul Kumar: (Google Scholar) (PubMed)

Jeewan Kumar Mitra: (Google Scholar) (PubMed)