Current Status and Future Trends of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Smoking Cessation: A Narrative Review with Specific Attention to TechnologyBased Interventions

Document Type : Review Article(s)


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Department of Counselling, School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Background: During recent decades, it has become evident that cigarette smoking has led to an increase in cancer, risk of death, 
and economic problems or sanitation issues worldwide. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), as a third-wave behavioral 
therapy, has devoted significant attention to smoking cessation. However, this treatment has been utilized in different formats and 
protocols. Moreover, addressing its challenges and progress needs examination and integration. Accordingly, the primary aim 
of this study was to present a narrative review for summarizing and integrating the current data on the effectiveness of ACT on
smoking cessation. This study also aimed to investigate the challenges and the future of this field.

Methods: The publications from January 1, 2010 to October 9, 2021 were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, 
PsycINFO, and Web of Science electronic databases. The search was performed with the following keywords: “Acceptance 
AND Commitment Therapy” OR “Acceptance” AND “smoking” OR “tobacco” OR “cigarette” OR “smoker” OR “Nicotine”. The 
inclusion criterion was studies with interventions aimed at reducing smoking cessation in smokers. 

Findings: A total of 17 articles were analyzed in this study. The results showed that this treatment has significant effectiveness in 
smoking cessation and psychiatric comorbidities. Moreover, the role of experiential avoidance in smoking cessation was discussed 
in detail. 

Conclusion: ACT is a suitable psychotherapy module for smoking cessation. However, it needs some upgrades regarding 
technology. To this end, smartphone applications and AVATAR therapy technologies were discussed with their advantages and 
solvable disadvantages.