Document Type : Original Article(s)
Social Determinants on Oral Health Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Background: Promoting oral health is a complicated issue among drug abusers and opium is the most frequent drug abused in Iran. This study aims to find the oral health determinants of opium users in Kerman, Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of the second phase of Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (KERCADRS, 2014-2018). In this survey, the data of 1140 opium users were analyzed. The information about using a toothbrush, dental floss, number of dental visits at last year, age of first use of opium, duration, and opium consumption frequency was recorded. The total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was recorded by an oral examination. Poisson and logistic regressions analyses were used for assessing the relationship among variables.
Findings: The mean age of participants was 52 ± 12 years. 74.4% were men and 24.6% were women. The average DMFT index was 15.7 ± 7.6 and the prevalence of a healthy CPI score was 18.5%. Educational level (P < 0.001), brushing (P < 0.001), flossing (P < 0.001), dental visit (P < 0.001), first age of using opium (P < 0.001), frequency of consumption (P < 0.001), and age (P < 0.001) were associated with DMFT index. Only using floss (P < 0.001), dental visit [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, P = 0.030], frequency of consumption (OR = 2.92, P < 0.001), and age (P = 0.001) were associated with CPI score.
Conclusion: The frequency of opium consumption has the same effect on caries incidence as oral hygiene habits. Moreover, using dental floss has a more significant effect on the periodontal health of participants.