Higher Morbidity and Mortality in Trauma Intensive Care Unit Patients with Opium Addiction

Document Type : Original Article


1 Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Nuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background: Opium addiction is associated with multiple physical, psychological, and social problems. The
aim of this study was to compare the risk of morbidity and mortality in opium-addicted and non-addicted
trauma patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of trauma center of Kerman Province, Iran.
Methods: In this cohort study, a total of 200 addict and non-addicted patients who were admitted due to
trauma in ICUs of Shahid Bahonar Hospital in Kerman during 9 months of 2018 were included. Patients were
compared in terms of mortality, incidence of pressure ulcers, incidence of organ failure, duration of mechanical
ventilation, and duration of hospitalization. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and independent
t-test at P < 0.05.
Findings: Out of 197 examined patients, 161 (81.7%) individuals were men and 36 (18.3%) were women.
Moreover, 98 (49.7%) patients had a history of opium abuse, while 99 (50.2%) patients had no history of opium
addiction. The addicted and non-addicted groups had no significant differences in terms of age
(P = 0.650) and gender (P = 0.580). In addicted patients, mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation
(P = 0.027), the incidence of pressure ulcer, and organ failure were significantly higher (P < 0.001), but mean
ICU stay and hospitalization time was the same in both groups.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated higher mortality and morbidity in opium-addicted patients
admitted to ICU than non-addicted ones. This suggests that various systems of the body are affected by opium
and, in certain circumstances such as severe diseases, this will cause problems for patients. Therefore, experts
should pay attention to complications and side effects of addiction in the management of critical patients with
a history of opium abuse.