The Relationship between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Religious Orientation with Perceived Stress and Cigarette Addiction among University Students

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background: Psychological stress is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, including smoking. Moreover, religious
beliefs can play a significant role in relieving mental disorders such as anxiety and stress. Due to the frequent
exposure of medical students to stressful situations, this study was conducted with the aim to investigate the
relationship of internal and external religious orientation with perceived stress and nicotine dependence.
Methods: This correlational study was carried out on medical students of Kerman University of Medical
Sciences, Kerman, Iran, in 2015. The sample size was determined to be 224 individuals using the Morgan
table. The participants were selected using stratified random sampling. The data collection tools consisted of
a demographic information form, the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) (Allport and Ross), the Perceived
Stress Scale (PSS-14), and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Data were analyzed using
multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient, and t-test in
SPSS software.
Findings: The findings of the study showed that internal religious orientation had a significant negative
relationship with perceived stress and nicotine dependence; however, no significant relationship was
observed between external religious orientation and these variables.
Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the religious beliefs of individuals have
a preventive role in perceived stress and nicotine dependence.


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