The Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Nomophobia Questionnaire

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine AND Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Center AND Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Resident, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Community Medicine Specialist, Vice Chancellery for Research and Technology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Research Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran


Background: Nomophobia is the fear of being disconnected from one’s mobile phone, prevailing in modern area. To the best of our knowledge, no Persian psychometric scales are available for investigating nomophobia among Iranians. Therefore, we here aimed to translate and validate the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) for being used in Iran.
Methods:The NMP-Q was translated from English to Persian using a classical “backward and forward” procedure. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to explore the underlying factor structure of the translated questionnaire. A principal component analysis (PCA) approach with varimax rotation was further performed.
Findings: 425 volunteer students were included. Among them, 80.2% were 20-30 years old. Men and women constituted 187 (44.0%) and 238 (56.0%) of the participants, respectively. 100 (23.5%) of the subjects were medicine graduates. Using mobile phones for more than 5 years was noted in 215 (50.6%) subjects. Also, 422 (99.3%) subjects connected to the Internet via their cellphones. Regarding cellphone usage, 301 (70.8%) subjects used them less than 5 hours a day, 158 (37.2%) subjects checked their cellphones less than 10 times a day, and 92 (21.6%) subjects checked their cellphones every 20 minutes. Eigenvalues and the scree-plot supported a 3-factorial nature of the translated questionnaire. NMP-Q showed an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 (the coefficients of 0.90, 0.77, and 0.71 for the three factors, respectively). The first, second, and third factors explained 26.30%, 20.84%, and 17.60% of the variance, respectively. The total score of NMP-Q correlated with the hours spent with mobile phones, the years of using them, and the age.
Conclusion: Our findings showed that the Persian version of the NMP-Q was a valid and reliable tool for evaluating nomophobia among Iranians.


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