Sleep Disorders in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Volunteers and Opium-‎dependent Patients

Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical ‎Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Sleep Disorders Research Center AND Department of Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing ‎and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


Background‎: The relationship between substance use and sleep is bidirectional. Substance use directly causes sleep disturbances, and sleep problems are a critical factor in substance-use relapse. Methods: This study evaluated sleep disorders in 65 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients, and 61 opium-dependent patients who did not receive any treatment between September 2011 and July 2012 in Kermanshah, Iran. Both groups filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire (GSAQ).Findings: Sleep disorders were remarkably similar in both groups: 78.5% of MMT patients and 87.7% of opium-dependent patients suffered from sleep problems. Sleep disorders in the opium-dependent group were remarkably higher and more prominent.Conclusion: Compared to opium, MMT does not have as many negative effects on sleep and is more effective in mitigating sleep problems.


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