Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran

Document Type : Review Article(s)


1 PhD Student, Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Kerman Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Instructor, Department of Epidemiology, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Professor, Regional Knowledge Hub for HIV/AIDS Surveillance, WHO Collaborating Center, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background: There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods: Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings: In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. Keywords: Cigarette, Prevalence, Iran, Structured review, Meta-analysis