Document Type: Original Article(s)
Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
MSc Student, Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Dentist, Private Practice, Kerman, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Background: Although evidence indicates that tobacco use is one of the risk factors for oral cancer, the relationship between opium addiction and oral cancer has not yet been evaluated. The present study was performed aiming to evaluate P53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in the gingival tissue of opium-dependent patients.Methods: 102 individuals (70 men and 32 women) were entered in the study. 63 and 39 individuals were included in the opium-dependent group and opium-independent group (control group), respectively. 1 gingival biopsy was taken from each individual. The biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution and embedded in paraffin at 56 ̊C. The slides were then stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & E) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation was performed with the antihuman antibodies of P53 and EGFR. The protein expression level was later assessed and data were analyzed statistically.Findings: P53 expression was higher among the opium-dependent group, however the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.052). EGFR expression was significantly higher among the opium-dependent group compared to the control group (P = 0.006).Conclusion: Opium dependency significantly affects EGFR expression in gingival tissue, however it seems to have no significant effect on P53 expression.
- Kademani D. Oral cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 2007; 82(7): 878-87.
- Johnson N. Tobacco use and oral cancer: A global perspective. J Dent Educ 2001; 65(4): 328-39.
- Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2009.
- Pfeifer GP, Denissenko MF, Olivier M, Tretyakova N, Hecht SS, Hainaut P. Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers. Oncogene 2002; 21(48): 7435-51.
- Rodu B, Jansson C. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: A review of the risks and determinants. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2004; 15(5): 252-63.
- Li JH, Lin LF. Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: A brief review. Mutagenes 1998; 13(6): 6-557.
- Kaur J, Srivastava A, Ralhan R. Overexpression of p53 protein in betel- and tobacco-related human oral dysplasia and squamous-cell carcinoma in India. Int J Cancer 1994; 58(3): 340-5.
- Matlashewski G, Lamb P, Pim D, Peacock J, Crawford L, Benchimol S. Isolation and characterization of a human p53 cDNA clone: Expression of the human p53 gene. EMBO J 1984; 3(13): 3257-62.
- Isobe M, Emanuel BS, Givol D, Oren M, Croce CM. Localization of gene for human p53 tumour antigen to band 17p13. Nature 1986; 320(6057): 84-5.
- Zhang H, Berezov A, Wang Q, Zhang G, Drebin J, Murali R, et al. ErbB receptors: From oncogenes to targeted cancer therapies. J Clin Invest 2007; 117(8): 2051-8.
- Herbst RS. Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004; 59(2 Suppl): 21-6.
- Cruz I, Snijders PJ, Van Houten V, Vosjan M, Van der Waal W, Meijer CJ. Specific p53 immunostaining patterns are associated with smoking habits in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. J Clin Pathol 2002; 55(11): 834-40.
- Sarkis SA, Abdullah BH, Abdul Majeed BA, Talabani NG. Immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma in relation to proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Head Neck Oncol 2010; 2: 13.
- Ishitoya J, Toriyama M, Oguchi N, Kitamura K, Ohshima M, Asano K, et al. Gene amplification and overexpression of EGF receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Br J Cancer 1989; 59(4): 559-62.
- Rubin Grandis J, Melhem MF, Gooding WE, Day R, Holst VA, Wagener MM, et al. Levels of TGF-alpha and EGFR protein in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and patient survival. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90(11): 824-32.
- Ribeiro Pinto LF, Swann PF. Opium and oesophageal cancer: Effect of morphine and opium on the metabolism of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine in the rat. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18(2): 365-9.
- Naghibalhossaini F, Ay J, Alavi J, Oveisi S, Chahardooli R. Effect of opium smoking on concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen and tissue polypeptide antigen. Int J Biol Markers 2004; 19(4): 305-9.
- Araujo CS, Graner E, Almeida OP, Sauk JJ, Coletta RD. Histomorphometric characteristics and expression of epidermal growth factor and its receptor by epithelial cells of normal gingiva and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. J Periodontal Res 2003; 38(3): 237-41.
- Sadeghi A, Behmard S, Vesselinovitch SD. Opium: A potential urinary bladder carcinogen in man. Cancer 1979; 43(6): 2315-21.
- Dowlatshahi K, Miller RJ. Role of opium in esophageal cancer: A hypothesis. Cancer Res 1985; 45(4): 1906-7.
- Mousavi MR, Damghani MA, Haghdoust AA, Khamesipour A. Opium and risk of laryngeal cancer. Laryngoscope 2003; 113(11): 1939-43.
- Fahmy MS, Sadeghi A, Behmard S. Epidemiologic study of oral cancer in Fars Province, Iran. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1983; 11(1): 50-8.
- Jane C, Nerurkar AV, Shirsat NV, Deshpande RB, Amrapurkar AD, Karjodkar FR. Increased survivin expression in high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma: A study in Indian tobacco chewers. J Oral Pathol Med 2006; 35(10): 595-601.
- Mizobuchi S, Furihata M, Sonobe H, Ohtsuki Y, Ishikawa T, Murakami H, et al. Association between p53 immunostaining and cigarette smoking in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2000; 30(10): 423-8.