Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

Ali Golshiri, Mohammad Reza Mokhtaree, Ziba Shabani, Sayed Taghi Tabatabaee, Amir Rahnama, Mohammad Moradi, Ahamad Reza Sayadi, Hadi Faezi



Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessationon the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokersbefore and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potentialpathogens were identified.

Findings: Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtainedfrom 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation(P < 0.0001). Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus saprofiticus, streptococos α hemolytic, and staphylococcus aureus in 2nd culture were not seen.

The most sensitivity to antibiotics was related to ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%) and cloxacillin (72%); the most resistance was to amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance was to chloramphenicol.

Conclusion: In our study, some potential pathogens decreased or even disapeared after opium cessation. Our patients have not been advised to change their number of cigarettes. We have used methadone pill for substitution of opium. It seems that opium smoking affects nasopharyngeal flora.

Keyword: Opium, Nasaopharynx, Microbial flora



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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v1i1.9


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