Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Opium Dependents: A Case-Control Study

Akbar Hamziee-Moghadam, Farhad Iranmanesh, Ali Arabpour-Fathabadi, Forugh Mohammadi


Background: There is still no consensus among researchers on the impact of opium dependency on cerebrovascular stenosis. Some studies suggest that opium may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke. This study compared carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cerebrovascular reactivity between opium-dependent and healthy people.

Methods: This case-control study was done among opium addicts at Shafa hospital in Kerman, Iran, in year 2018. People with systemic disease or who took any medicine were excluded from our study. The control group were selected from healthy non-addicted volunteers. The control group was matched in age and sex with the case group. Cerebrovascular reactivity of middle cranial artery and intima-media thickness of carotid artery were measured for all in both groups. The results were analyzed using chi-square, independent samples t, and logistic regression tests.

Findings: 47 opium addicts and 47 healthy people entered this study. 88% of them were men and 12% were women. 68.1% of the case group and 31.9% of the control group were cigarette smokers; this difference was statistically significant. Comparison of cerebrovascular reactivity and CIMT between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). This relationship remained significant for the CIMT after removing confounding factors (P = 0.018).

Conclusion: Overall, our findings show that opium dependency affects the carotid intima-media thickness as an indicator of cerebral atherosclerosis.


Opium; Intima-Media Thickness; Cerebrovascular Diseases; Stroke; Transcranial Doppler Sonography

Full Text:


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v10i2.555


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.