An Investigation of the Risk Factors of Osteoporosis and the Correlation between Opium Consumption and Osteoporosis in Adults

Zeinab Heidari, Armita Shahesmaeili, Mohammad Reza Khajeh-Bahrami, Mandana Rezazadeh-Mehrizi, Mohammad Hossein Gozashti, Vahid Moazed


Background: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are the most common metabolic bone diseases making the patients vulnerable to bone fragility and fracture. In this study, the association of opium consumption and osteoporosis adjusted for other risk factors was studied.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 619 cases including 73 men and 546 women referred to densitometry center in Kerman, Iran, were studied. Demographic information, history of opium consumption, medications, and other risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire.

Findings: In a univariate analysis, opium consumption, aging, and having a body mass index (BMI) lower than 24 accompanied an increased chance of osteoporosis, while taking physical exercises on a daily basis reduces the chance of osteoporosis. Through multivariable analysis, the two variables of age group and BMI group turned out to be of significance; that is, the chance of osteoporosis or osteopenia in the age group of higher than 60 years and 45-60 years being placed in one of the levels of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 4.9 and 3.1 times higher than the age groups lower than 45 years, respectively, after being adjusted to the other variables.

Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, though the risk of bone density reduction in the individuals consuming opium was higher, due to the disparity between opium consumption in the two sexes, the difference was not significant between the two groups, and it is proposed that studies on larger samples and in the both sexes be conducted to determine the impacts of opium on the bone density.


Opium; Osteoporosis; Osteopenia

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