Content Analysis of the Concept of Addiction in High School Textbooks of Iran

Mohammad Hasan Mirzamohammadi, Sayedeh Zainab Mousavi, Omid Massah, Ali Farhoudian


Background: This research sought to determine how well the causes of addiction, addiction harms, and prevention of addiction have been noticed in high school textbooks.

Methods: We used descriptive method to select the main related components of the addiction concept and content analysis method for analyzing the content of textbooks. The study population comprised 61 secondary school curriculum textbooks and study sample consisted of 14 secondary school textbooks selected by purposeful sampling method. The tools for collecting data were “content analysis inventory” which its validity was confirmed by educational and social sciences experts and its reliability has been found to be 91%. About 67 components were prepared for content analysis and were divided to 3 categories of causes, harms, and prevention of addiction. The analysis units in this study comprised phrases, topics, examples, course topics, words, poems, images, questions, tables, and exercises.

Findings: Results of the study showed that the components of the addiction concept have presented with 212 remarks in the textbooks. Also, the degree of attention given to any of the 3 main components of the addiction concept were presented as follows: causes with 52 (24.52%) remarks, harm with 89 (41.98%) remarks, and prevention with 71 (33.49%) remarks.

Conclusion: In high school textbooks, little attention has been paid to the concept of addiction and mostly its biological dimension were addressed while social, personal, familial, and religious dimensions of addiction have been neglected.


Harm; Substance addiction; Prevention; Content analysis; High school; Curriculum; Causes

Full Text:



Saunders JB. Addiction medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2016.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2015. New York, NY: United Nations Publication; 2015.

Allison K, Leone PE, Spero ER. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents: Social context and competence. In: Leone PE, editor. Understanding troubled and troubling youth. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications; 1990. p. 173-93.

Narenjiha H, Rafiei H, Baghestani A, Noori R, Soleimaninia L, Shirinbayan P, et al. Rapid situation assessment of substance abuse and dependendency in Islamic Republic of Iran (2007). Tehran, Iran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2008. [In Persian].

Sarrami H, Ghorbani M, Minooei M. Survey of four decades of addiction prevalence researches in Iran. Research on Addiction 2013; 7(21): 29-52. [In Persian].

Haghdoost AA, Nasehi AA, Tarjoman T, Jafari F, Saberi Zafarghandi MB, Nikfarjam A, et al. Estimating population size of drug and alcohol abusers in Iran 2012. Kerman, Iran: Modeling in Health Research Center; 2012. [In Persian].

Sharifi V, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hajebi A, Motevalian A, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, et al. Twelve-month prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders in Iran: the Iranian Mental Health Survey, 2011. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(2): 76-84.

Ekhtiari H, Behzadi A, Sadeghi M, Mirbaha H, Noroozi L, Alavi A. A manual for diagnosis and treatment of addiction in Iran. 2nd ed. Tehran, Iran: Arjmand Publications; 2010. p. 144. [In Persian].

Taremian F, Bolhari J, Pairavi H, Ghazi Tabatabaeii M. The prevalence of drug abuse among university students in Tehran. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008; 13(4): 335-42. [In Persian].

Taremian F, Bolhari J, Peyravi H, Asgari A. Drug use prevalence among students of universities of medical sciences in Tehran. Research on Addiction 2014; 7(28): 9-21. [In Persian].

Pentz MA. Directions for future research in drug abuse prevention. Prev Med 1994; 23(5): 646-52.

Ebrahimi A. Addiction Prevention training with life skills approach. 1st ed. Isfahan, Iran: Kankash Publications; 2010. p. 160. [In Persian].

Ebrahimi AA, Agahi B, Massah O, Farhoudian A. Effectiveness of preschool immunization against addictive drugs in Isfahan preschool centers. Archives of Rehabilitation 2014; 14(5): 59-66. [In Persian].

Delavar A. Theoretical and practical basis of research in the humanities and social sciences. 7th ed. Tehran, Iran: Roshd Publications; 2009. p.432. [In Persian].

Tobler NS, Roona MR, Ochshorn P, Marshall DG, Streke AV, Stackpole KM. School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. J Prim Prev 2000; 20(4): 275-336.

Tobler NS, Stratton HH. Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. J Prim Prev 1997; 18(1): 71-128.

Cuijpers P. Effective ingredients of school-based drug prevention programs. A systematic review. Addict Behav 2002; 27(6): 1009-23.

Shaffer DDR, Kipp K. Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2010.

Weiner IB, Reynolds WM, Miller GE. Handbook of psychology: Educational psychology. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2003.

White MA, Murray AS. Evidence-based approaches in positive education: Implementing a strategic framework for well-being in schools. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.

Botvin GJ. Drug Abuse Prevention in School Settings. In: Botvin GJ, Schinke S, Orlandi MA, editors. Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications; 1995. p. 169-92.

Botvin GJ. Preventing drug abuse in schools: social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addict Behav 2000; 25(6): 887-97.

Mirjani-Aghdam A, Farhadi M H, Eftekhari F, Fadaei E. Evaluation of educational packages on knowledge of male students in Tehran City about addiction and its complications. Archives of Rehabilitation 2012; 12(5): 8-13. [In Persian].

Rahmati A. Effectiveness of coping skills training on change of attitude toward substance abuse among students in Kerman [PhD Dissertation]. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabataba'i University; 2004. [In Persian].

Eisen M, Zellman GL, Murray DM. Evaluating the Lions-Quest "Skills for Adolescence" drug education program. Second-year behavior outcomes. Addict Behav 2003; 28(5): 883-97.

Litt MD, Kadden RM, Kabela-Cormier E, Petry NM. Coping skills training and contingency management treatments for marijuana dependence: Exploring mechanisms of behavior change. Addiction 2008; 103(4): 638-48.

Scott WA. Reliability of content analysis: The case of nominal scale coding. Public Opin Quart 1955; 19: 321-5.

Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Tortu S, Botvin EM. Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: results of a 3-year study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1990; 58(4): 437-46.

Evans Richard I, Rozelle Richard M, Maxwell Scott E, Raines Bettye E, Dill Charles A, Guthrie Tanya J, et al. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: Results of a three-year field investigation. J Appl Psychol 1981; 66(4): 399-414.

Hahn EJ, Hall LA, Rayens MK, Burt AV, Corley D, Sheffel KL. Kindergarten children's knowledge and perceptions of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. J Sch Health 2000; 70(2): 51-5.

Dusenbury L, Falco M, Lake A. A review of the evaluation of 47 drug abuse prevention curricula available nationally. J Sch Health 1997; 67(4): 127-32.

Beatty SE, Cross DS, Shaw TM. The impact of a parent-directed intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. Drug Alcohol Rev 2008; 27(6): 591-601.

Zambo D. Using the picture book Thank You, Mr. Falker to understand struggling readers. ‎J Adolesc Adult Lit 2005; 48(6): 502-12.

Savad-Kouhi AA, Arjmand-Hesabi M, Nowrouzi RA. Acceptance of addiction prevention exiting methods and presentation of appropriate model. Archives of Rehabilitation 2006; 7(3): 50-61. [In Persian].

Dusenbury L, Falco M. Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. J Sch Health 1995; 65(10): 420-5.

Bosworth K, Sailes J. Content and teaching strategies in 10 selected drug abuse prevention curricula. J Sch Health 1993; 63(6): 247-53.

Hakimzadeh R, Kiamanesh A, Attaran M. Content analysis of textbooks at lower secondary education in terms of Global issues related to curriculum. Curriculum Studies 2007; 2(1): 27-54. [In Persian].

Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Miller N, Ifill-Williams M. Smoking initiation and escalation in early adolescent girls: one-year follow-up of a school-based prevention intervention for minority youth. J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972) 1999; 54(3): 139-43, 152.

Mousavi SZ, Mirzamohammadi MH, Massah O. Teachers and students' perspectives of the contents of an addiction-prevention curriculum. Archives of Rehabilitation 2014; 14(5): 100-7. [In Persian].



  • There are currently no refbacks.