Maternal Separation and the Risk of Drug Abuse in Later Life

Fatemeh Delavari, Vahid Sheibani, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Nouzar Nakhaee

Abstract


Maternal separation (MS) is defined as the termination of the continuity of mother-child relationship after the relationship is established. Although MS and maternal deprivation are different in terms of their definitions, these two terms are usually used interchangeably. This review aims to investigate the effect of MS on drug intake in adulthood. It has been proved that animal models are helpful in evaluating the effects of MS on drug intake risk in adulthood. There are relatively acceptable studies in this field on some drugs such as morphine, ethanol, and cocaine. However, very few animal studies, or even no animal study, have been conducted on some other drugs. The majority of these studies have considered MS as a risk factor for drug intake in adulthood. Different mechanisms are proposed for this phenomenon. Brain reward pathways are one of the main exploratory pathways of this process. Despite the importance of the issue, no human study with a specific concentration on investigating the relationship between MS and drug abuse in later life was found. Causal studies are warranted on humans to investigate the effect of MS on drug intake in later life.


Keywords


Early life stress; Maternal deprivation; Addiction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fenoglio KA, Brunson KL, Baram TZ. Hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early-life stress: functional and molecular aspects. Front Neuroendocrinol 2006; 27(2): 180-92.

Vazquez V, Penit-Soria J, Durand C, Besson MJ, Giros B, Dauge V. Maternal deprivation increases vulnerability to morphine dependence and disturbs the enkephalinergic system in adulthood. J Neurosci 2005; 25(18): 4453-62.

Li M, Xue X, Shao S, Shao F, Wang W. Cognitive, emotional and neurochemical effects of repeated maternal separation in adolescent rats. Brain Res 2013; 1518: 82-90.

Nishi M, Horii-Hayashi N, Sasagawa T, Matsunaga W. Effects of early life stress on brain activity: implications from maternal separation model in rodents. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2013; 181: 306-9.

Bowlby J. Maternal care and mental health. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1951.

Slotten HA, Kalinichev M, Hagan JJ, Marsden CA, Fone KC. Long-lasting changes in behavioural and neuroendocrine indices in the rat following neonatal maternal separation: gender-dependent effects. Brain Res 2006; 1097(1): 123-32.

Ploj K, Roman E, Nylander I. Long-term effects of maternal separation on ethanol intake and brain opioid and dopamine receptors in male Wistar rats. Neuroscience 2003; 121(3): 787-99.

Kosten TA, Miserendino MJ, Kehoe P. Enhanced acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult rats with neonatal isolation stress experience. Brain Res 2000; 875(1-2): 44-50.

Yarrow LJ. Separation from parents during early childhood. In: Hoffman M, Hoffman LNW, Editors. Review of child development research. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; 1964.

Gandelman R. The psychobiology of behavioral development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1992.

Tata DA. Maternal separation as a model of early stress: effects on aspects of emotional behavior and neuroendocrine function. Hellenic Journal of Psychology 2012; 9: 84-101.

Kumari M, Head J, Bartley M, Stansfeld S, Kivimaki M. Maternal separation in childhood and diurnal cortisol patterns in mid-life: findings from the Whitehall II study. Psychol Med 2013; 43(3): 633-43.

Naqavi MR, Mohammadi M, Salari V, Nakhaee N. The relationship between childhood maltreatment and opiate dependency in adolescence and middle age. Addict Health 2011; 3(3-4): 92-8.

Rees SL, Steiner M, Fleming AS. Early deprivation, but not maternal separation, attenuates rise in corticosterone levels after exposure to a novel environment in both juvenile and adult female rats. Behav Brain Res 2006; 175(2): 383-91.

Oreland S. Maternal separation in the rat: the short- and long-term effects of early-life experience on neuropeptides, monoamines and voluntary ethanol consumption [Thesis]. Uppsala, Sweden: School of Pharmacy, Uppsala University; 2009.

Nakhaee N, Jadidi N. Why do some teens turn to drugs? A focus group study of drug users' experiences. Journal of Addictions Nursing 2009; 20(4): 203-8.

Jadidi N, Nakhaee N. Etiology of drug abuse: a narrative analysis. J Addict 2014; 2014: 352835.

Eisenberg L, Glaser K. Maternal deprivation. Pediatrics 1956; 18(4): 626-42.

Feng X, Wang L, Yang S, Qin D, Wang J, Li C, et al. Maternal separation produces lasting changes in cortisol and behavior in rhesus monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108(34): 14312-7.

Franklin TB, Russig H, Weiss IC, Graff J, Linder N, Michalon A, et al. Epigenetic transmission of the impact of early stress across generations. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 68(5): 408-15.

Moffett MC, Vicentic A, Kozel M, Plotsky P, Francis DD, Kuhar MJ. Maternal separation alters drug intake patterns in adulthood in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73(3): 321-30.

Hall FS, Wilkinson LS, Humby T, Robbins TW. Maternal deprivation of neonatal rats produces enduring changes in dopamine function. Synapse 1999; 32(1): 37-43.

Flagel SB, Vazquez DM, Robinson TE. Manipulations during the second, but not the first, week of life increase susceptibility to cocaine self- administration in female rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28(10): 1741-51.

Vazquez V, Giros B, Dauge V. Maternal deprivation specifically enhances vulnerability to opiate dependence. Behav Pharmacol 2006; 17(8): 715-24.

Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, Henningfield JE. Similarities in animal and human drug-taking behavior. In: Mello NK, Editor. Advances in alcohol & substance abuse. Philadelphia, PA: Haworth Press; 1981. p. 1-90.

Kalinichev M, Easterling KW, Holtzman SG. Periodic postpartum separation from the offspring results in long-lasting changes in anxiety-related behaviors and sensitivity to morphine in Long-Evans mother rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000; 152(4): 431-9.

Roman E, Nylander I. The impact of emotional stress early in life on adult voluntary ethanol intake-results of maternal separation in rats. Stress 2005; 8(3): 157-74.

Gustafsson L, Ploj K, Nylander I. Effects of maternal separation on voluntary ethanol intake and brain peptide systems in female Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005; 81(3): 506-16.

Roman E, Ploj K, Nylander I. Maternal separation has no effect on voluntary ethanol intake in female Wistar rats. Alcohol 2004; 33(1): 31-9.

Daoura L, Haaker J, Nylander I. Early environmental factors differentially affect voluntary ethanol consumption in adolescent and adult male rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011; 35(3): 506-15.

Peasco S, Mela V, Lpez-Moreno J, Viveros M, Marco EM. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life. Neural Plasticity 2015; 2015: 10.

Feinn R, Nellissery M, Kranzler HR. Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2005; 133B(1): 79-84.

Riikonen RS, Nokelainen P, Valkonen K, Kolehmainen AI, Kumpulainen KI, Kononen M, et al. Deep serotonergic and dopaminergic structures in fetal alcoholic syndrome: a study with nor-beta-CIT- single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging volumetry. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57(12): 1565-72.

Romano-Lopez A, Mendez-Diaz M, Ruiz-Contreras AE, Carrisoza R, Prospero-Garcia O. Maternal separation and proclivity for ethanol intake: a potential role of the endocannabinoid system in rats. Neuroscience 2012; 223: 296-304.

Huot RL, Thrivikraman KV, Meaney MJ, Plotsky PM. Development of adult ethanol preference and anxiety as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long Evans rats and reversal with antidepressant treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 158(4): 366-73.

Kosten TA, Sanchez H, Zhang XY, Kehoe P. Neonatal isolation enhances acquisition of cocaine self-administration and food responding in female rats. Behav Brain Res 2004; 151(1-2): 137-49.

Kikusui T, Faccidomo S, Miczek KA. Repeated maternal separation: differences in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in adult male and female mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 178(2-3): 202-10.

Martini M, Valverde O. A single episode of maternal deprivation impairs the motivation for cocaine in adolescent mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2012; 219(1): 149-58.

Llorente-Berzal A, Manzanedo C, Daza-Losada M, Valero M, Lopez-Gallardo M, Aguilar MA, et al. Sex-dependent effects of early maternal deprivation on MDMA-induced conditioned place preference in adolescent rats: possible neurochemical correlates. Toxicology 2013; 311(1-2): 78-86.

Marco EM, Adriani W, Llorente R, Laviola G, Viveros MP. Detrimental psychophysiological effects of early maternal deprivation in adolescent and adult rodents: altered responses to cannabinoid exposure. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2009; 33(4): 498-507.

Klug M, van den Buuse M. Chronic cannabinoid treatment during young adulthood induces sex- specific behavioural deficits in maternally separated rats. Behav Brain Res 2012; 233(2): 305-13.

Llorente-Berzal A, Fuentes S, Gagliano H, Lopez- Gallardo M, Armario A, Viveros MP, et al. Sex- dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour. Addict Biol 2011; 16(4): 624-37.

Lewis CR, Staudinger K, Scheck L, Olive MF. The effects of maternal separation on adult methamphetamine self-administration, extinction, reinstatement, and MeCP2 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens. Front Psychiatry 2013; 4: 55.

Black R, Victora C, Walker S, Bhutta Z, Christian P, de Onis M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet 2013; 382(9890): 427-51.

Kattula D, Sarkar R, Sivarathinaswamy P, Velusamy V, Venugopal S, Naumova EN, et al. The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India. BMJ Open 2014; 4: e005404.

Burke RM, Leon JS, Suchdev PS. Identification, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency during the first 1000 days. Nutrients 2014; 6(10): 4093-114.

Blum K, Braverman ER, Holder JM, Lubar JF, Monastra VJ, Miller D, et al. Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. J Psychoactive Drugs 2000; 32(Suppl): i-112.

Raftogianni A, Stamatakis A, Diamantopoulou A, Kollia AM, Stylianopoulou F. Effects of an early experience of reward through maternal contact or its denial on the dopaminergic system of the rat brain. Neuroscience 2014; 269: 11-20.

Chocyk A, Dudys D, Przyborowska A, Mackowiak M, Wedzony K. Impact of maternal separation on neural cell adhesion molecules expression in dopaminergic brain regions of juvenile, adolescent and adult rats. Pharmacol Rep 2010; 62(6): 1218-24.

Jahng JW, Ryu V, Yoo SB, Noh SJ, Kim JY, Lee JH. Mesolimbic dopaminergic activity responding to acute stress is blunted in adolescent rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation. Neuroscience 2010; 171(1): 144-52.

Crawford TN, Cohen PR, Chen H, Anglin DM, Ehrensaft M. Early maternal separation and the trajectory of borderline personality disorder symptoms. Dev Psychopathol 2009; 21(3): 1013-30.

Anglin DM, Cohen PR, Chen H. Duration of early maternal separation and prediction of schizotypal symptoms from early adolescence to midlife. Schizophr Res 2008; 103(1-3): 143-50.

Sorensen HJ, Mortensen EL, Reinisch JM, Mednick SA. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol- related diagnoses in adult life. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(4): 704-9.

Dube S, Felitti VJ, Dong M, Chapman DP, Giles WH, Anda RF. Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics 2003; 111(3): 564-72.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v8i2.367

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.