Kerman University of Medical Sciences

Document Type : Review Article(s)


1 Department of Public and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece

2 Department of Animal Production, Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Patras, Patras, Greece


Introduction: Nomophobia refers to the worry or fear that individuals experience when they are without their mobile phone or they are unable to use it. As a term, it was first launched in 2008 and it is considered as a modern type of phobia. The aim of the certain study was to retrieve and review the most relevant literature on the prevalence of nomophobia and its relationship with psychosocial and physical health among young adults.
Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted according the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), for original papers dealing with the phenomenon of Nomophobia in young adults using the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q), as the main measuring instrument. The literature was focused on three main sections such as a) Prevalence and level of nomophobia, b) Nomophobia and psychosocial effects and, c) Nomophobia and physical health, in young adults.
Results: The initial literature corpus consisted of 370 articles of which 40 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail. Nomophobia prevailed among 15.2-99.7% of the participants. Research findings indicated increased psychological, emotional, social and physical side effects due to the excessive smart phone use.
Conclusions: The excessive use of smartphone is an emerging threat for the social, mental and physical health. There is an increased need for further research of the phenomenon, as it is evolving into an epidemic outbreak and concerns directly the field of public health.