Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD).
Khat: A review of its potential harms to the
individual and communities in the UK [Online].
[cited 2013 Jan 23]; Available from: URL:
2. Honest information about drugs| FRANK. Speed:
Also called: Whizz, Sulph, Paste, Billy, Base,
Amphetamine Sulphate, Amphetamine [Online].
[cited 2017 Dec 24]; Available from: URL:
3. Honest information about drugs| FRANK. Khat:
Also called: Quat, Qat, Qaadka, Chat [Online]. [cited
2014 Feb 4]; Available from:
4. Corkery JM, Schifano F, Oyefeso A, Ghodse AH,
Tonia T, Naidoo V, et al. Overview of literature and
information on "khat-related" mortality: A call for
recognition of the issue and further research. Ann Ist
Super Sanita 2011; 47(4): 445-64.
5. Estifanos M, Azale T, Slassie M, Aynalem G, Kefale
B. Intention to stop khat chewing and associated
factors among khat chewers in Dessie city, North
Eastern Ethiopia. Epidemiology 2016; 6: 11.
6. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD).
Khat (Qat): Assessment of Risk to the Individual and
Communities in the UK, 2005 [Online]. [cited 2017
Dec 15]; Available from: URL:
7. Hassan NA, Gunaid AA, Murray-Lyon IM. Khat
(Catha edulis): Health aspects of khat chewing. East
Mediterr Health J 2007; 13(3): 706-18.
8. Cox G, Rampes H. Adverse effects of khat: A
review. 2003; 9(6): 456-63.
9. Colzato LS, Ruiz MJ, van den Wildenberg WPM,
Hommel B. Khat use is associated with increased
response conflict in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol
Clin Exp 2012; 27(3): 315-21.
10. Pennings EJM, Opperhuizen A, van Amsterdam
JGC. Risk assessment of khat use in the Netherlands:
A review based on adverse health effects,
prevalence, criminal involvement and public order.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2008; 52(3): 199-207.
11. Feyissa AM, Kelly JP. A review of the
neuropharmacological properties of khat. Prog
Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32(5):
12. Warfa N, Klein A, Bhui K, Leavey G, Craig T,
Alfred SS. Khat use and mental illness: A critical
review. Soc Sci Med 2007; 65(2): 309-18.
13. Kassim S, Croucher R, Al'Absi M. Khat dependence
syndrome: A cross sectional preliminary evaluation
amongst UK-resident Yemeni khat chewers. J
Ethnopharmacol 2013; 146(3): 835-41.
14. Cane J, O'Connor D, Michie S. Validation of the
theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour
change and implementation research. Implement Sci
2012; 7: 37.
15. Francis JJ, Johnston M, Robertson C, Glidewell L,
Entwistle V, Eccles MP, et al. What is an adequate
sample size? Operationalising data saturation for
theory-based interview studies. Psychol Health 2010;
16. Islam R, Tinmouth AT, Francis JJ, Brehaut JC, Born
J, Stockton C, et al. A cross-country comparison of
intensive care physicians' beliefs about their
transfusion behaviour: a qualitative study using the
Experiences of khat users & support staff Begum et al.
254 Addict Health, Autumn 2019; Vol 11, No 4
http://ahj.kmu.ac.ir, 07 October
Theoretical Domains Framework. Implement Sci
2012; 7: 93.
17. Patey AM, Islam R, Francis JJ, Bryson GL,
Grimshaw JM. Anesthesiologists' and surgeons'
perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in
low-risk patients: Application of the Theoretical
Domains Framework (TDF) to identify factors that
influence physicians' decisions to order pre-operative
tests. Implement Sci 2012; 7: 52.
18. McBain H, Begum S, Rahman S, Mulligan K.
Barriers to and enablers of insulin self-titration in
adults with Type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study.
Diabet Med 2017; 34(2): 253-61.
19. Pope C, Ziebland S, Mays N. Qualitative research in
health care. Analysing qualitative data. BMJ 2000;
20. Ritchie J, Lewis J. Qualitative research practice: A
Guide for Social science students and researchers.
London, UK: SAGE Publications; 2003.
21. Thomas S, Williams T. Khat (Catha edulis): A
systematic review of evidence and literature
pertaining to its harms to UK users and society. Drug
Science, Policy and Law 2013; 1: 1-25.
22. Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Alem A, Hogberg U, Kullgren
G. Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as
related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based
study on women in reproductive age groups. Scand J
Public Health 2008; 36(6): 589-97.
23. Patel SL, Wright S, Gammampila A. Khat use
among Somalis in four English cities. Home Office
Online Report 47/05 [Online]. [cited 2013];
Available from: URL: http://karin-ha.org.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/rdsolr4705.pdf
24. Kassim S, Jawad M, Croucher R, Akl EA. The
epidemiology of tobacco use among khat users: A
systematic review. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015:
25. Manghi RA, Broers B, Khan R, Benguettat D,
Khazaal Y, Zullino DF. Khat use: Lifestyle or
addiction? J Psychoactive Drugs 2009; 41(1): 1-10.
26. Kassim S, Islam S, Croucher RE. Correlates of
nicotine dependence in U.K. resident Yemeni khat
chewers: A cross-sectional study. Nicotine Tob Res
2011; 13(12): 1240-9.
27. Ghouri N, Atcha M, Sheikh A. Influence of Islam on
smoking among Muslims. BMJ 2006; 332(7536):
28. McMurran M. What works in substance misuse
treatments for offenders? Crim Behav Ment Health
2007; 17(4): 225-33.
29. NICE | The National Institute for Health and Care
Excellence. Multimorbidity: clinical assessment and
management. NICE guideline [NG56] [Online].
[cited 20160Sep]; Available from: URL:
30. Wedegaertner F, al-Warith H, Hillemacher T, te
Wildt B, Schneider U, Bleich S, et al. Motives for
khat use and abstinence in Yemen - a gender
perspective. BMC Public Health 2010; 10(1): 735.
31. Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth
I, Petticrew M. Developing and evaluating complex
interventions: The new Medical Research Council
guidance. BMJ 2008; 337: a1655.
32. Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C,
Francis J, Hardeman W, et al. The behavior change
technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically
clustered techniques: Building an international
consensus for the reporting of behavior change
interventions. Ann Behav Med 2013; 46(1): 81-95.
33. Michie S, Atkins L, West R. The behaviour change
wheel: A Guide to designing interventions. London,
UK: Silverback Publishing; 2014.
34. Nabuzoka D, Badhadhe FA. Use and perceptions of
khat among young Somalis in a UK city. Addiction
Research 2000; 8(1): 5-26.