Kerman University of Medical Sciences

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine AND Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Center AND Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Resident, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Community Medicine Specialist, Vice Chancellery for Research and Technology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Research Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

Abstract

Background: Nomophobia is the fear of being disconnected from one’s mobile phone, prevailing in modern area. To the best of our knowledge, no Persian psychometric scales are available for investigating nomophobia among Iranians. Therefore, we here aimed to translate and validate the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) for being used in Iran.
Methods:The NMP-Q was translated from English to Persian using a classical “backward and forward” procedure. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to explore the underlying factor structure of the translated questionnaire. A principal component analysis (PCA) approach with varimax rotation was further performed.
Findings: 425 volunteer students were included. Among them, 80.2% were 20-30 years old. Men and women constituted 187 (44.0%) and 238 (56.0%) of the participants, respectively. 100 (23.5%) of the subjects were medicine graduates. Using mobile phones for more than 5 years was noted in 215 (50.6%) subjects. Also, 422 (99.3%) subjects connected to the Internet via their cellphones. Regarding cellphone usage, 301 (70.8%) subjects used them less than 5 hours a day, 158 (37.2%) subjects checked their cellphones less than 10 times a day, and 92 (21.6%) subjects checked their cellphones every 20 minutes. Eigenvalues and the scree-plot supported a 3-factorial nature of the translated questionnaire. NMP-Q showed an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 (the coefficients of 0.90, 0.77, and 0.71 for the three factors, respectively). The first, second, and third factors explained 26.30%, 20.84%, and 17.60% of the variance, respectively. The total score of NMP-Q correlated with the hours spent with mobile phones, the years of using them, and the age.
Conclusion: Our findings showed that the Persian version of the NMP-Q was a valid and reliable tool for evaluating nomophobia among Iranians.

Keywords

  1. Khazaee T, Saadatjoo A, Shabani M, Senobari M, Baziyan M. Prevalence of mobile phone dependency and its relationship with students’ self-esteem. Knowledge Health 2014; 8(4): 156-62. [In Persian].
  2. Panahi Y, Aslani T, Faraji R, Betvaz H. Dependence on mobile phone in students. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2013 Sep 17-19; Tabriz, Iran. [In Persian].
  3. King AL, Valenca AM, Nardi AE. Nomophobia: The mobile phone in panic disorder with agoraphobia: reducing phobias or worsening of dependence? Cogn Behav Neurol 2010; 23(1): 52-4.
  4. King ALS, Valenca AM, Silva ACO, Baczynski T, Carvalho MR, Nardi AE. Nomophobia: Dependency on virtual environments or social phobia? Comput Human Behav 2013; 29(1): 140-4.
  5. Dongre AS, Inamdar IF, Gattani PL. Nomophobia: A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence and impact of cell phone on health. National Journal of Community Medicine 2017; 8(11): 688-93.
  6. Yildirim C, Correia AP. Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Comput Human Behav 2015; 49: 130-7.
  7. Gutierrez-Puertas L, Marquez-Hernandez VV, Aguilera-Manrique G. Adaptation and validation of the spanish version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire in nursing studies. Comput Inform Nurs 2016; 34(10): 470-5.
  8. Jafarzadeh E. Relationship between cell phone addiction and mental health in students in University of Birjand [MSc Thesis]. Birjand, Iran: University of Birjand; 2011. p. 45-55. [In Persian].
  9. Khazaie T, Saadatjoo A, Dormohamadi S, Soleimani M, Toosinia M, Mullah Hassan Zadeh F. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression. J Birjand Univ Med Sci 2013; 19(4): 430-8.
    [In Persian].

10. Hu LT, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling 1999; 6(1): 1-55.

11. Bragazzi NL, Del Puente G, Adavastro G, Pompei V, Siri A, Rania N, et al. Translation and validation of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) in Italian language: Insights from factor analysis. European Psychiatry 2016; 33: S390.

12. Gonzalez-Cabrera J, Leon-Mejia A, Perez-Sancho C, Calvete E. Adaptation of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) to Spanish in a sample of adolescents. Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2017; 45(4):
137-44.

13. Sharma N, Sharma P, Sharma N, Wavare RR. Rising concern of nomophobia amongst Indian medical students. Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3): 705-7.

14. Kalaskar PB. A study of awareness of development of NoMoPhobia condition in smartphone user management students in Pune city. ASM’s International E-Journal on Ongoing Research in Management and IT 2015; 10: 320-6.

15. Yahyazadeh S, Fallahi-Khoshknab M, Rahgoi A, Norouzi K, Dalvandi A. The prevalence of smart phone addiction among students in medical sciences universities in Tehran 2016. J Nurs Midwifery Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci 2016; 26(94): 1-10. [In Persian].

16. Alosaimi FD, Alyahya H, Alshahwan H, Al MN, Shaik SA. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2016; 37(6): 675-83.

17. Prasad M, Patthi B, Singla A, Gupta R, Saha S, Kumar JK, et al. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional study to assess mobile phone usage among dental students. J Clin Diagn Res 2017; 11(2): ZC34-ZC39.