Document Type: Original Article(s)
MSc Student, Department of Psychology, School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Psychology, School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Background: Addiction brings about severe and profound physical, psychological and social damages such as divorce, crime, and unemployment. The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of transactional analysis (TA) therapy on addiction intensity of woman patients treated with methadone.Methods: The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest and a control group. The statistical population consisted of all the addicted women who referred to any drug rehabilitation center of Tehran, Iran, in 2016. They were selected using available sampling. Forty addicted patients were placed randomly in both the experimental and control groups. Addiction severity index (ASI) and demographic questionnaires were used. Group therapy using TA approach was executed on the experimental group for 10 sessions, each session for 2 hours (one session per week).Findings: The results of covariance analysis after controlling pretest showed that the difference between test and control group was significant for three subscales of psychological, drug abuse and alcohol consumption status (P < 0.001). The difference between test and control groups was significant considering the seven-variable centroid (P < 0.001). The difference in dimensions of addiction intensity between the two groups was significant (P < 0.001). Also, analysis of the variables separately showed significant differences in psychiatric condition, drug and alcohol use dimensions (P < 0.001).Conclusion: Based on these findings, it seems that group therapy using TA approach is effective in reducing addiction intensity of woman patients treated with methadone. Therefore, it can be concluded that TA group interventions account for 76% of the changes in psychological status, 43% of the changes in drug abuse status, and 49% of the changes in alcohol consumption status in woman patients under methadone treatment.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5Â®). 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.
- Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
- Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Shadloo B, Noroozi A, Malekinejad M. Transition to injecting drug use in Iran: A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative evidence. Int J Drug Policy 2015; 26(9): 808-19.
- Scheurich A, Muller MJ, Wetzel H, Anghelescu I, Klawe C, Ruppe A, et al. Reliability and validity of the German version of the European addiction severity index (EuropASI). J Stud Alcohol 2000; 61(6): 916-9.
- Clarke N, Mun EY, Kelly S, White HR, Lynch K. Treatment outcomes of a combined cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for a sample of women with and without substance abuse histories on an acute psychiatric unit: Do therapeutic alliance and motivation matter? Am J Addict 2013; 22(6): 566-73.
- Lykke J, Austin SF, Morch MM. Cognitive milieu therapy and restraint within dual diagnosis populations. Ugeskr Laeger 2008; 170(5): 339-43.
- Clarkson P. Transactional analysis psychotherapy: An integrated approach. London, UK: Routledge; 2013.
- Gu J, Lau JT, Chen H, Liu Z, Lei Z, Li Z, et al. Validation of the Chinese version of the opiate addiction severity inventory (OASI) and the severity of dependence scale (SDS) in non-institutionalized heroin users in China. Addict Behav 2008; 33(5): 725-41.
- Booth L. Observations and reflections of communication in health care-could transactional analysis be used as an effective approach? Radiography 2007; 13(2): 135-41.
- Murakami M, Matsuno T, Koike K, Ebana S, Hanaoka K, Katsura T. Transactional analysis and health promotion. Int Congr Ser 2006; 1287(Supplement C): 164-7.
- Clayton SH, Dunbar RL. Transactional analysis in an alcohol safety program. Social Work 1977; 22(3): 209-13.
- Kafi SM, Mollazadeh Esfanaji R, Nori M, Salehi E. The effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on the prevention of relapse among detoxified people. Journal of Research on Addiction 2009; 3(10): 11-28.
- McLellan AT, Kushner H, Metzger D, Peters R, Smith I, Grissom G, et al. The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. J Subst Abuse Treat 1992; 9(3): 199-213.
- Liang T, Liu EW, Zhong H, Wang B, Shen LM, Wu ZL. Reliability and validity of addiction severity index in drug users with methadone maintenance treatment in Guizhou province, China. Biomed Environ Sci 2008; 21(4): 308-13.
- Mokri A, Ekhtiari H, Edalati H, Ganjgahi H. Relationship between degree of craving and different dimensions of addiction severity in heroin intravenous users. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008; 14(3): 298-306.
- Britt E, Hudson SM, Blampied NM. Motivational interviewing in health settings: A review. Patient Educ Couns 2004; 53(2): 147-55.
- Wickersham JA, Loeliger KB, Marcus R, Pillai V, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL. Patterns of substance use and correlates of lifetime and active injection drug use among women in Malaysia. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2016; 42(1): 98-110.
- McHugh RK, Wigderson S, Greenfield SF. Epidemiology of substance use in reproductive-age women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2014; 41(2): 177-89.
- Berne E. Transactional analysis in psychotherapy: A systematic individual and social psychiatry. Helsinki, Finland: Ravenio Books; 2016.
- Guindalini C, Vallada H, Breen G, Laranjeira R. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group? BMC Public Health 2006; 6: 10.
- Fox HC, Talih M, Malison R, Anderson GM, Kreek MJ, Sinha R. Frequency of recent cocaine and alcohol use affects drug craving and associated responses to stress and drug-related cues. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005; 30(9): 880-91.
- Stewart I, Joines V. A New Introduction to transactional analysis. Trans. Dadgostar B. Tehran, Iran: Dayereh Publications; 2010. [In Persian].
- Senoo E, Ogai Y, Haraguchi A, Kondo A, Ishibashi Y, Umeno M, et al. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the addiction severity index (ASI-J). Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2006; 41(4): 368-79.
- Sun Z, Chen H, Su Z, Zhou X, Zhang S, Hao W, et al. The Chinese version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-C): Reliability, validity, and responsiveness in Chinese patients with alcohol dependence. Alcohol 2012; 46(8): 777-81.