Background: Worldwide, prisoners are more at risk of being infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as hepatitis C and B in comparison with other risk groups. The combination of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), addiction and prison are factors that threaten the health of our society. Influence of risky behaviors is so common on transmission of AIDS into prisoners’ bodies. This study used available information and reports to investigate the prevalence of HIV in Iranian prisons.Methods: The following review of documents available in national and foreign databases, a total of 26 studies were investigated and required information was extracted from both the full papers and abstracts.Findings: The selected studies differed methodologically in their sampling method and data collection tools. Within the 26 studies analyzed, there was a combined study cohort of 39707 people in whom HIV prevalence varied between 0% and 24.40%.Conclusion: In this study, HIV prevalence ranged widely among the prisoners, and in most of these studies, the rate in Iran was higher than that of other countries. The prevalence of disease was highest among intravenous drug users. Unless proper preventive and control plans among risk groups such as prisoners are not implemented in a timely and suitable manner, the risk of infection in the broader society will increase.