Background: Identifying the status of substance misuse and its psychosocial correlates among residents of juvenile correctional centers, as a high risk group, could potentially illuminate the roadmap to prevention of drug use in this group. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 93 individuals aged 13 to 18 were enrolled. A self-administered questionnaire was completed and dropped in a sealed box. It consisted of 4 parts of Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale, NEO Personality Inventory, drug use questions, and demographic variables. All questionnaires were well adapted in the Persian language. MANOVA was used to compare the subscale scores between the drug users and nonusers. Findings: All respondents were male and 40% were illiterate. More than 40% had drug dependent fathers. Use of cigarette, opium, and alcohol in the previous 30 days was reported by 31.9, 52.2, and 15.9% of respondents, respectively. In this population, the score of 3 of the 5 personality factors (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and openness) were higher than in the general population (P < 0.001). More than 88% of subjects had negative self-concept. Both the scores of personality and self-concept showed no significant difference based on the status of drug use. Conclusion: Prevalence of lifetime and last-month drug use was found to be high. Regarding the profiles of personality and self-concept, more comprehensive evidence-based interventions are needed for improvement of their mental health.