Background: Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods: This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran including opium user group (n = 179) and a non opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Findings: Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure and prevalence of high systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.050). In addition, lower serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and frequency of lower HDL was significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to this study, opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent.